Oh I thought you mean remove the veneer and keep the particle board. Putting in a whole new piece of wood does sound easier. Need to have a fiddle with the fixings and see.
Funnily enough I've just that exact same thing with my ikea bedside tables, the board had water damage and I had some spare oak left over from another project. Turned out quite nice
Probably a bit more of a challenge doing a big table though.