Last time I went climbing in Canada my Canadian friend bought bear spray, a pair of .45 Beretta carbines and a dog!
I'm hoping there's more to this story than just a day out at the crag.
Just in case anyone is reading this and gets the wrong idea: it is not normal in Canada to do outdoorsy things like hiking or climbing with a gun. Even in the more remote bits where you'll be on your own for multiple nights and bears are very common. I'm not every sure of the legality of it, but I suspect the answer is "not very." The most common anti-bear measures are bells and bear spray.